Okay, “Enlightenment or bust” might be a bit dramatic, but…

"Dang Zang" is an empty name. The blog has to do with the dharma; material related to Buddhist teachings (Tibetan style in particular, Kagyu in even more particular), meditation, gurus and lamas be they genuine or flaky, books and events. I do have a more personal blog, Pica Pica, and a site for my work.

Oh yes, it's by Alex Wilding


  • Untitled 27/02/2017
    https://www.theguardian.com/…/grandmother-deported-from-uk-… How is this fair? How is this not vindictive? How is this not a failure to use discretion? How is this not a failure of compassion? How is this not a failure of common sense? How is this not narrow-minded? How is this not mean-spirited? How is this not pig-headed? Sorry, pigs, it’s just […]
  • Donny, Theresa and the Brexit effect 29/01/2017
    In her attempt to pretend that there is enough other “free trade” out there in the world to compensate for the financial hit to the UK (lower wages and higher prices, to you and me) that Wrexit will cause, we have seen Theresa May cosying up to a variety of questionable characters, most notably the […]
  • When spin approaches lie 26/01/2017
    When is that? In Theresa May’s  speech to Republicans she is expected to say that “… as we end our membership of the European Union – as the British people voted with determination and quiet resolve to do last year – we have …” (The sentence goes on with more waffle-words like ” sovereign and global Britain”.) […]
  • Fight for me, Teresa 01/01/2017
    Theresa May seems to be revealing herself as a Class One “say-whatever-you-think-people-will-like-to-hear-at-the-time,-and-preferably-in-words-that-are-vague-enough-not-to-be-falsifiable-later” merchant. After “Brexit means Brexit” (eh?) and “I want a red, white and blue Brexit” (uh?), she claims in her New Year’s message that she will fight the remainers’ case in Europe too. Now, I am a remainer, or I would have voted […]
Friday September 4th, 2009. Posted by Alex W:

Who am I?

Thanks to Lorraine Vost for this picture from Lama Pema Dorje’s course last month:


Submit your guesses in comments! (Oh, I had to change the setting for comments so that I have to approve them before they appear, as I was getting anything from a handful to a score of spam comments every day, but I will of course approve anything that is even 1/4-way reasonable.) You might need to click-to-enlarge to get the necessary detail.

I asked the same question about a different picture on Pica Pica, but the intervening years and the number of people make that one much more of a challenge.

Wednesday August 19th, 2009. Posted by Alex W:

Lujong – approachable Tibetan Yoga

Saturday last, at the Rigpa Centre in Sydney: Lama Pema Dorje gave the teachings on Lujong, for which I previously publicised a flyer.

On the Saturday morning there was a White Tara empowerment (from the pure vision of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo). It was explained that this was a valuable but not essential support for the practice. The practice itself is not too difficult (although some of the stretches are more than most of us could manage), and very invigorating. It seems there are some people who even make it their main practice.

I was impressed by the organisation. The event was not complicated, but the organisation was efficient and unobtrusive, and I got no sense that anybody was less welcome than anybody else. Buddhism is, of course, not free from cliques, but there was no sign of it here. Here is a picture of the Lama teaching:

LPD teaching

And one of him with his wife (Kunzang, I believe):

LPD and Kunzang

The event was held in the Rigpa centre. Their shrine is a mass of prints and photos, with not so many actual statues, but I was very taken by one rather dark Guru Rinpoche. Unfortunately the photo below doesn’t quite capture the feeling that I got from it:

GR statue Rigpa

Anyway, one of the main reasons for this entry is that these teachings, and Lama Pema Dorje Rinpoche himself, have a close connection to Padampa Sangye. A year or so ago, a translation of a biography of Padampa Sangye was published by Snow Lion (1-55939-299-1) under the title “Lion of Siddhas”, which I would like to recommend. You can click the picture to go to Snow Lion, where you can read more about it, or even order it:


It is in two main parts. The first is the biography itself which is kind of nice, although so thickly larded with miracles it would not be to everybody’s taste – you have been warned! The second main part comprises a feast of mahamudra instructions from Padampa Sangye. Well, perhaps “feast” is not quite the right word, as it’s probably best appreciated by dipping in for a few lines or a paragraph at a time and savouring them well before going back, so perhaps it’s more like a large box of Belgian chocolates.

Friday July 3rd, 2009. Posted by Alex W:

The Six Yogas of Naropa – books

Milarepa - great practitioner of tummo

Milarepa - great practitioner of tummo

Rather than take an in-depth look at a single work, I want to take a very quick tour here through some of the books in which material on the famous Six Yogas of Naropa is presented in English. Whenever this material is published it is stressed – and it is important that I also stress – that for a number of reasons it is neither advisable nor even possible to attempt these practices outside the context of transmission from a qualified, authorized teacher of the tradition, a process that involves explanations, empowerments, guidance and so on. Some of the exercises are physically quite dangerous – on a more subtle level it is questionable whether they really even have any point at all if they are taken out of the context of the “transmission” of meditative realization.

In the past an ordinary person, even an ordained person in a monastery or nunnery, would not even have been allowed to look at these texts, let alone study them on their own. (At least, that has been said. Chris Fynn has pointed out in a comment that this is probably something of a myth, and I think he’s quite right – I stand corrected!) But that particular horse bolted long ago – Evans Wentz published his translations on the Six Yogas back in the 1930s – so although it is important to respect the reasons why these things were once literally secret, it is silly to try to shut the stable door now. In particular, it is a fact that the fascination and power of these teachings has meant that inaccurate, even bizarre, interpretations and modifications are increasingly in circulation. Since the highly controlled, step-by-step introduction to these teachings may be ideal, but is increasingly becoming a thing of the past for many of us, is it not better to be reasonably well-informed than to be informed only by the weird and wonderful fantasies of opportunist would-be gurus?

So just what kind of thing are the Six Yogas anyway? Where do they fit into the scheme of Buddhist meditation? They are an important exemplar of the more advanced tantric methods – so what, therefore, is tantric? We don’t have to search the net very long to see that the word “tantric” has been used (and abused) in some startling ways, and the question of what tantrism is really about in the Buddhist context is something for another article. To put it very, very briefly the classic course of practical training in Tibetan Buddhism would begin with reflection on things like impermanence, suffering and on the precious opportunity presented by a human birth; it would continue with practices designed to develop loving kindness and compassion, and insight into the true nature of things – emptiness. Developing mental stability is a key issue at this stage. All of this (and it is a huge, rich field) is classified as the “sutra” method, in contrast to “tantra”.

A number of “preliminary” or “foundation” exercises designed to engender a sense of purity and of devotion might well follow, in the lead up to the tantric practice proper, which is known as the “two stages”. These two stages are the “developing” stage and the “perfecting” or “completing” stage. The developing stage is where the practitioner visualizes herself or himself as a deity, and the world outside as a palace or mandala. This stage can involve elaborate ritual and the recitation of many, many mantras. The relationship between this stage and the “completing” stage is itself a matter of some subtlety, but we can perhaps say that the completing stage is where the practitioner goes beyond visualization of the deity in its palace and actually becomes transformed in body, speech and mind, by the practice. In some contexts the completing stage simply emphasizes dissolving the visualization into clarity and emptiness, but in other contexts the completing stage is much more elaborate. This is where the Six Yogas come in.

Meditation in the style of the perfecting stage places an intense focus on our bodies, our bodily energy and our breath. The first and most important of the Six Yogas is known as tummo, the inner heat. It is taught that the control of our energy that comes from successful practice of tummo provides the basis for the other methods. In fact the list of the other yogas varies, and the total does not always come to six – it is just that the Six Yogas of Naropa are perhaps the most famous version. In at least one system, the whole body of this material is just referred to as tummo, with the other five yogas of illusory body, dream, clear light, the intermediate state (between death and birth) and consciousness transference at the time of death all being counted as supplementary practices to the tummo.
Be that as it may, my purpose here is not to provide any meaningful sort of introduction, but just to pass comment on some of the books that are most easily available. Many, if not all, of these would be available from the Snow Lion bookstore. So what do we have?

Glenn Mullin has been a very active author in this field for some years, and has probably made the most valuable material available. From him we have:

  • Six Yogas of Naropa, The; Tsongkhapa; trans. Glenn H Mullin; Snow Lion Publications; 1996, 2005; 1-55939-234-7

The various branches of the Kagyu school are probably the ones most famous for the Six Yogas of Naropa, while Tsongkhapa on the other hand is most famous as the founding figure of the Gelugpas. He is also particularly noted for having initiated the unique intellectual slant of that school. It seems, however, that he was highly renowned as a yogi, and was even more prolific as a writer on tantric subjects, much of which he would have learnt from Kagyu teachers. His knowledge of these fields was therefore very much “mainstream”, and this translation is certainly a candidate for the clearest description of a version of the Six Yogas available in English.

Complementing the above work closely, we have:

  • Readings on the Six Yogas of Naropa; Tilopa, Naropa, Jey Sherab Gyatso, Gyalwa Ensapa, Lama Jey Tsongkhapa, 1st Panchen Lama; trans. Glenn H Mullin; Snow Lion Publications; 1997; 1-55539-074-3

and complementing it a little more loosely, but still very interestingly:

  • Selected Works of the Dalai Lama II; The Tantric Yogas of Sister Niguma; Dalai Lama II; trans. Glenn H Mullin; Snow Lion Publications; 1985; 0-937938-28-9

In the:

  • Bliss of Inner Fire; Heart Practice of the Six Yogas of Naropa; Lama Thubten Yeshe; Jonathan Landaw; Wisdom Publications, Boston; 1998; 0-86171-136-X

the charismatic Lama Yeshe (of the FPMT – Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition) explains the practice with great clarity on some of the key points, although with relatively little detail. This book is much easier to read than those I recommended above, and does perhaps convey some of the flavour and some inspiration effectively.

Closely related practices are described in a Kagyu context in:

  • Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines; Various; trans. Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup (prob.); edited W Y Evans-Wentz; OUP; 1958 (my reprint was 1970)

Back in the 1960s and early 1970s it may have been difficult to get hold of much material about Tibetan Buddhism outside of the series of translations edited by Evans-Wentz. It must, however, be said that his understanding of the subject was necessarily limited, the editing, and the inclusion of supplementary material from other traditions is often unhelpful and frequently downright misleading, while the pseudo-biblical language is enough to make you scream. Read it if you have it, but there is much better material available now.

  • Six Yogas of Naropa and Teachings on Mahamudra; Tilopa, Rangjang Dorje, Lama Kong Ka, Drashi Namjhal; Garma C C Chang; Garma C C Chang; Snow Lion Publications; 1963 (1977 reprint); 0-937-938-33-5

This one should be beautifully clear, based as it is on a concise text that nevertheless presents the epitome of the practice. Unfortunately, however, the translation leaves an awful lot to be desired.

  • Clear Light of Bliss; Geshe Kelsang Gyatso; Tharpa Publications; 1992; 0-948006-21-8

In some ways I would have preferred not to mention this one, due to the political and other problems that have nothing to do with the subject of this article. It is, however, readily available. The flavour is somewhat idiosyncratic, the level of detail quite high, but of a nature that would only be useful to somebody following this specific tradition of the practice. If one felt that one would rather keep away from something so closely associated with the NKT (“New Kadampa Tradition”, as they call it), one could again stay with the first few books I mention above, and know the one was not missing terribly much.

  • Esoteric Teachings of the Tibetan Tantra; Karma Lingpa, Tsongkhapa; Chang Chen Chi; C A Muses; Samuel Weiser; 1961/1982; 0-87728-307-9

This book is a curious assortment, including texts on, for instance, Space Dharma Empowerments as well as a translation of the Six Yogas commentary. It makes an interesting comparison with Mullin’s translation at times, but once again the Mullin versions are clearly superior.

When I started to write this, I didn’t know how much praise I was going to give to Glenn Mullin’s “Six Yogas of Naropa” and the associated books, but comparing them side by side like this it becomes clear how much I would recommend them over the others.

I hope anybody who is inspired by reading any of these things will use what they learn as background, as fertilizer if you like, and will take the necessary steps to get the necessary understanding, blessing, empowerment and teaching to put that into practice for the benefit of all beings!